Histological types of cancer

Cancer types can be grouped into histological categories, which include:

Carcinoma - cancer that originates in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. A majority (close to 90 %) of cancer are carcinoma.

Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.

Lymphoma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Lymphomas (such as Hodgkin’s disease) are cancer of the lymphocytes (a specialized blood cell that take part in our defence against foreign material such as viruses).

Myeloma - also a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system. Myelomas are cancer of the bone marrow, particularly of the cells that produces antibodies.

Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.

Central nervous system specific - cancers that begin in the tissues located in the brain and central nervous system (CNS). Many types exist: glioma, blastoma, CNS lymphoma, etc.

Mesothelioma - rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining (called mesothelium) that covers many of the body's internal organs such as the lining of the lungs, the heart and the abdominal cavity. It is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos.